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Responder a:Ic charging chip, components/capacitors missingBoth of these capacitors would be directly responsible for charging of your device. The smallest capacitors have the following markings: Model Number: C1754 0.1UF 01005 4V X5R 20% AliExpress: http://bit.ly/cond-С1754 Model Number: С1739 0.01UF 10% 6.3v X5R 01005 AliExpress: http://bit.ly/cond-C1739 It is quite "popular" mistake of unskilled technician to blow those two small capacitors away while removing U1700 chip.
Responder a:iPhone can only charge by 1 type of cable.The problem is with a charging controller located inside of the iPhone. Looks like it's been fried at some point. It needs to be replaced, but Apple don't provide such service. Look for specialists in iPhone repair business.